Prepare for the Future

How do you prepare to avoid something if you have no idea of what might happen or when it might happen?

That is the difficulty. What will the future throw at us? I have some ideas

Whatever happens there are a few common sence things that can be done:

  • don't live in a fault zone;
  • don't live too near a volcano;
  • don't live at sea level close to the coast;
  • don't live in a low level dip anywhere that may fill with water as it moves from place to place;
  • don't live in too cold a climate.

But apart from the obvious, what else can be done?

Types of Incident

This page is concerned with how to prepare for, and what to do during, major catastrophies.

Here is a list of the main incidents that may happen in the future — many of these have a seperate page giving details of the incident and background information.

For each incident type, there will be very generic actions to be taken. These are listed here and visited in more detail later.

Incidents and Actions
Abrupt Climate Change Pre-stock Cold Weather Gear
Pre-stock Food and Water
Escape the Danger Zone
Hold Up
Earthquake Take Cover!
Escape the Danger Zone
Famine Hold Up
Pre-stock Food and Water
Remote Isolation
NEO Strike Hold Up
Escape the Danger Zone
Nuclear War Take Cover!
Nuclear Incident

Decontamination
Hold Up
Pandemic Epidemic Hold Up
Remote Isolation
Terrorist NBC Chemical Incident
Biological Incident
Nuclear Incident
Decontamination
Hold Up
Volcanic Eruption Escape the Danger Zone
Hold Up
Tsunami Tsunmi Incidents
Escape the Danger Zone
Prepare and Equip for long-term Survival
Growing food Types of Food
Boost their Light
Growing Tips
Saving Seeds
Food Precautions
The Survivalist's Garden
Aquaponics About Aquaponics
Building a System
Related Information
Spirulina Growing
Water Precautions Water Storage
Drinking Precautions
Full Water Precautions
Emergancy Water Sources
Purify Water
Rationing
Edible Wild Food Recognising edible & poisonous
Catagorise Useful Equipment
Survival Equipment Personal
Bag
Combat
Survival
Civilian
Car
Tools
Weapons
Extended

Survival Actions

Take Cover!

Many dangerous situations require you to take immediate action to protect yourself. This protection could be to dive under a strong table in an earthquake or head for a cellar in the event of a nuclear blast. The incident will determine what the most appropriate cover is but this is immediate action and you'll more than likely have to compromise.

Escape the Danger Zone

Sometimes immediate escape is the only safe measure. At other times escape can only be done after taking cover or holding up for a while. At the time of the incident you will have to decide what is best in the instant it occurs. Having a knowledge and understanding of the incident type is of great use here.

Escaping the danger zone requires you to leave, "lock, stock and barrel", and go somewhere else. In some cases you'll be evacuated by the authorities — but beware! Once in the clutches of the authorities you'll probably be without any of your resources (food, water and equipment) and you'll probably be under their control. And the matter could get worse and you'll have no escape.

So this requires you to leave and take what you can with you. It may need to be done very quickly — in the case of a tsunami or a looting mob you may have a minute or so. Is this feasable, can you do it?

Hold Up

Hold up in a safe place — underground is better. You'll need to have supplies to get you through. These will have to be pre-stocked food and water initially but as time goes on, a lengthy incident will require the eating of wild food and growing your own food.

Remote Isolation

This is similar to holding up except for the need to be isolated from the rest of the world. Isolation is essential for a pandemic and rigirous decomtamination is essential to prevent cross-contamination and the spread of infection.

Pre-stock Cold Weather Gear

In the heat you can shade and remove clothing, but in the cold only specialist clothing will do.

Pre-stock Food & Water

Have a stock of food and water. Remember to adhere to water precautions. Remember this is only a short term relief — eventually you will either have to leave your stash or it will run out. Long term incidents require you to eat wild food and grow your own food.

At Home

It is obviously useful to have stocked food at home. But remember, if you have to leave home — in a hurry or not — taking a years food and water is not going to be possible! And even more impossible of you need to slip away unnoticed.

At a Safe Location

Because moving large quantities of food and water is very difficult, you may find that a remote (and hopefully safe) location to hide away a stash is useful. Even if you do not want to stay there, remoteness will allow you time to arrange transportation.

Cemical Incident

Initial Chemical

A chemical incident should be fairly straightforward to identify due to the immediate symptoms that chemical agents cause but detection earlier than that could be difficult.

Immediate symptoms of exposure to chemical agents may include blurred vision, eye irritation, difficulty breathing and nausea. A person affected by a chemical or biological agent requires immediate attention by professional medical personnel. If medical help is not immediately available, decontaminate yourself and assist in decontaminating others. Decontamination is needed within minutes of exposure to minimize health consequences. Use extreme caution when helping others who have been exposed to chemical agents. (However, you should not leave the safety of a shelter to go outdoors to help others until authorities announce it is safe to do so.)

Obviously if the incident is a gas attack, the area has to be avoided by travelling up-wind. If a respirator is not available, and in most cases this will unfortunately be the case, forcibly breath out and, pinching close your nose and half shutting your eyes, run away as fast and as far as you can. This advice is far from perfect and contamination, that needs immediate medical attention, will occur but hopefully these measures will reduce the effects. Fortunately, as the airborne chemical agents dissipate over distance the effect will diminish — so a chemical gas attack is a fairly short-range, small area weapon.

Chemical agents may also be liquid and as such they may be smeared on objects or added to other liquids. If the incident is a contamination of the water supply, all you have to do is avoid water!

As well as gas and liquid, chemical agents may be solid and distributed as dust in envelopes and on objects.

If you get contaminated you must immediately decontaminate and seek medical care.

What to do during a chemical attack
  1. Listen to your TV/radio for instructions from authorities such as whether to remain inside or to evacuate.
  2. If you are instructed to remain in your home, the building where you are, or other shelter during a chemical or biological attack:
    • Turn off all ventilation, including furnaces, air conditioners, vents and fans.
    • Seek shelter in an internal room, preferably one without windows. Seal the room with duct tape and plastic sheeting. Ten square feet of floor space per person will provide sufficient air to prevent carbon dioxide build-up for up to five hours.
    • When selecting a shelter-in-place, avoid the furnace or utility room.
    • Do not use any major appliances located in your shelter-in-place such as the furnace, oven/range, clothes dryer or washing machine.
    • Remain in protected areas where toxic vapours are reduced or eliminated, and be sure to take your battery-operated radio with you.
  3. If you are caught in an unprotected area, you should:
    • Attempt to get up-wind of the contaminated area.
    • Attempt to find shelter inside a building as quickly as possible.
    • Listen to your radio for official instructions.
  4. If you are in a vehicle and are unable to go inside a building, stay in the vehicle, roll up the windows, turn off the engine and shut all vents.

Biological Incident

Initial Biological

A biological incident will be almost impossible to identify due to the time differences between when the contamination happened and symptoms beginning to show. As soon as an incident is identified every member should seek isolation until they show no symptoms; then the group will be safe to meet as necessary. It should be noted that due to the nature of biological agents (which are after all produced by the military with the intention to kill and to spread) members must take this period of isolation seriously — any lapse could put the rest of the group in jeopardy.

Biological agents may be disseminated in gas, solid or liquid form; they are essentially a virus or germ that spreads from victim to victim.

In many biological attacks, people will not know they have been exposed to an agent. In such situations, the first evidence of an attack may be when you notice symptoms of the disease caused by an agent exposure, and you should seek immediate medical attention for treatment. In some situations, like the anthrax letters sent in the US in 2001, people may be alerted to a potential exposure. If this is the case, pay close attention to all official warnings and instructions on how to proceed. The delivery of medical services for a biological event may be handled differently to respond to increased demand. Again, it will be important for you to pay attention to official instructions via radio, television, and emergency alert systems.

If your skin or clothing comes in contact with a visible, potentially infectious substance, you should (immediately decontaminate) remove and bag your clothes and personal items and wash yourself with warm soapy water immediately. Put on clean clothes and seek medical assistance.

What to do during a biological attack
  1. Listen to your radio for instructions from authorities such as whether to remain inside or to evacuate.
  2. If you are instructed to remain in your home, the building where you are, or other shelter during a chemical or biological attack:
    • Turn off all ventilation, including furnaces, air conditioners, vents and fans.
    • Seek shelter in an internal room, preferably one without windows. Seal the room with duct tape and plastic sheeting. Ten square feet of floor space per person will provide sufficient air to prevent carbon dioxide build-up for up to five hours.
    • When selecting a shelter-in-place, avoid the furnace or utility room.
    • Do not use any major appliances located in your shelter-in-place such as the furnace, oven/range, clothes dryer or washing machine.
    • Remain in protected areas where toxic vapours are reduced or eliminated, and be sure to take your battery-operated radio with you.
  3. If you are caught in an unprotected area, you should:
    • Attempt to get up-wind of the contaminated area.
    • Attempt to find shelter inside a building as quickly as possible.
    • Listen to your radio for official instructions.
  4. If you are in a vehicle and are unable to go inside a building, stay in the vehicle, roll up the windows, turn off the engine and shut all vents.

Nuclear Incident

Radiological or Nuclear Incidents

A nuclear incident will be difficult to identify due to the invisibility of the radioactivity – unless of course there is a very, very big explosion and that might just give the game away! Radioactivity forms on objects like dust and other airborne particles and will follow the wind so avoidance must be up-wind of the incident. Unless you are close enough to the incident to get a very high dose, symptoms may not show for days, weeks or years. Radioactivity has the ability to contaminate very large areas and evacuation could very easily be necessary.

The three ways to minimize radiation exposure are distance, shielding and time:

  • Distance. The more distance between you and the source of the radiation the better. In a serious nuclear power plant accident, local authorities will call for an evacuation to increase the distance between you and the radiation.
  • Shielding. Like distance, the more heavy, dense material between you and the source of the radiation the better. This is why local authorities could advise you to remain indoors if an accident occurs at a nearby nuclear power plant. In some cases, the walls in your home would be sufficient shielding to protect you.
  • Time. Most radioactivity loses its strength fairly quickly. In a nuclear power plant accident, local authorities will monitor any release of radiation and determine when the threat has passed.
What to do during a nuclear emergency
  1. Listen to the warning. Not all incidents result in the release of radiation. The incident could be contained inside the plant and pose no danger to the public.
    • Stay tuned to local radio or television. Local authorities will provide specific information and instructions.
    • The advice given will depend on the nature of the emergency, how quickly it is evolving and how much radiation, if any, is likely to be released.
    • Local instructions should take precedence over any other advice.
  2. Evacuate if you are advised to do so.
    • Close and lock doors and windows.
    • Keep car windows and vents closed; use re-circulating air.
    • Listen to radio for evacuation routes and other instructions.
  3. If you are not advised to evacuate, remain indoors.
    • Close doors and windows.
    • Turn off any other air intakes.
    • Go to a basement or other underground area if possible.
    • Keep a battery-powered radio with you at all times.
  4. Shelter livestock and give them stored feed, if time permits.
  5. Do not use the telephone unless absolutely necessary. Lines will be needed for emergency calls.
  6. If you suspect exposure, take a thorough shower.
    • Change clothes and shoes.
    • Put exposed clothing in a plastic bag.
    • Seal the bag and place it out of the way.
  7. Put food in covered containers or in the refrigerator. Food not previously covered should be washed before being put in containers.
What to do during a nuclear or radiological attack
  1. Do not look at the flash or fireball — it can blind you.
  2. If you hear an attack warning:
    1. Take cover as quickly as you can, BELOW GROUND IF POSSIBLE, and stay there unless instructed to do otherwise.
    2. If you are caught outside, unable to get inside immediately, take cover behind anything that might offer protection. Lie flat on the ground and cover your head.
    3. If the explosion is some distance away, it could take 30 seconds or more for the blast wave to hit.
  3. Protect yourself from radioactive fallout. If you are close enough to see the brilliant flash of a nuclear explosion, the fallout will arrive in about 20 minutes. Take shelter, even if you are many miles from ground zero — radioactive fallout can be carried by the winds for hundreds of miles. Remember the three protective factors: shielding, distance and time.
  4. Keep a battery-powered radio with you, and listen for official information. Follow the instructions given. Local instructions should always take precedence: officials on the ground know the local situation best.
  5. Do not leave the shelter until officials say it is safe. Follow their instructions when leaving.
  6. If in a fallout shelter, stay in your shelter until local authorities tell you it is permissible or advisable to leave. The length of your stay can range from a day or two to four weeks.
  7. Contamination from a radiological dispersion device could affect a wide area, depending on the amount of conventional explosives used, the quantity of radioactive material and atmospheric conditions.
    1. A "suitcase " terrorist nuclear device detonated at or near ground level would produce heavy fallout from the dirt and debris sucked up into the mushroom cloud.
    2. A missile-delivered nuclear weapon from a hostile nation would probably cause an explosion many times more powerful than a suitcase bomb, and provide a greater cloud of radioactive fallout.
    3. The decay rate of the radioactive fallout would be the same, making it necessary for those in the areas with highest radiation levels to remain in shelter for up to a month.
    4. The heaviest fallout would be limited to the area at or downwind from the explosion, and 80%of the fallout would occur during the first 24 hours.
    5. Because of these facts and the very limited number of weapons terrorists could detonate, most of the country would not be affected by fallout.
    6. People in most of the areas that would be affected could be allowed to come out of shelter and, if necessary, evacuate to unaffected areas within a few days.
  8. Although it may be difficult, make every effort to maintain sanitary conditions in your shelter space.
  9. Water and food may be scarce. Use them prudently but do not impose severe rationing, especially for children, the ill or elderly.

NBC Decontamination

Once clear of the suspected contaminated area, remove all external apparel, such as clothes, shoes, gloves, hats, including jewellery (rings, watches, etc) and other items such as hair clips and leave them outside. Contaminated clothing normally removed over the head should be cut off to avoid contact with the eyes, nose, and mouth. Put into a plastic bag if possible. Remove eyeglasses or contact lenses. Put glasses in a pan of household bleach to decontaminate.

Proceed to a shower and thoroughly wash your body with soap and clean water. This needs to be accomplished within minutes. Simply flushing water over the body is not enough. You need to aggressively scrub your skin and irrigate your eyes with water. In the case of biologicals, this is often sufficient to avert contact infection. If available, for suspected biological and chemical contamination the contaminated areas should then be washed with a 0.5-percent sodium hypochlorite solution, allowing a contact time of 10 to 15 minutes. To make a 0.5-percent sodium hypochlorite solution, take one part household bleach such as Clorox, and 10 parts water. Do not let this solution contact your eyes.

If a biological or chemical contamination is suspected, for decontamination of fabric clothing or equipment, use undiluted household bleach. A contact time of 30 minutes should be allowed before discarding or further use.

Tsunamis Incidents

In instances where the leading edge of the tsunami is its trough, the sea will recede from the coast half the wave's period before the wave's arrival. If the slope is shallow, this recession can exceed 800 m. People unaware of the danger may remain at the shore due to curiosity, or for collecting fish from the dry sea bottom. In instances where the leading edge of the tsunami is its first peak, low-lying coastal areas are flooded before the higher second wave reaches them. Again, being educated about a tsunami is important, to realize that when the water level drops the first time, the danger is not yet over.

Early warning signs of a tsunami wave is often the withdrawal of the sea prior to the wave itself and survivors have told of whirlwind like air pressure differences and sounds – in fact the greater the see withdrawal the higher the wave. Earthquakes felt near coastlines should trigger tsunami avoiding tactics even before any other signs are detected.

Initial reaction is to seek higher ground where possible, or if the tsunami wave is not too great seek shelter in the upper floors of a sturdy building or big tree. If you are washed away grab something that floats and curl up to avoid floating debris and striking objects.

There may be more than one wave; the first is often smaller than the main wave and there may be after-waves too. Essentially once a wave comes inland it will seek to draw back unless superseded by a subsequent wave. Much debris will be pushed inland with the wave and then drawn back as it recedes. Do not give up your safe position too early.

A tsunami will contaminate everything with seawater and whatever the sea brings with it (bodies, sewerage and other debris). If the tsunami is large there is a great possibility that a big area has been affected and this may mean a lack of basic survival needs. Even in developed countries the disturbance created can cause lack of food and drink and medical availability; in 3rd world countries this can easily lead to a major threat to life. So, when the threat has passed, salvage what you can and move to safer ground.

Long Term Preparation

Growing Food in Low Light

Types of Food

Greens

Leaf lettuce grows well indoors. It's fine to grow one variety per container or to combine a variety of lettuces in one large container. Leaf lettuces are lettuces that grow in an open form rather than in a tight head, such as green leaf and red leaf lettuces. Try lettuce, kale, collards and spinach. Leaf lettuce varieties and miniature Tom Thumb head lettuce are fast growing.

Leaf lettuces tend to mature quickly, within 30 days, and baby lettuces provide tender salad greens. Leaf lettuces grown with herbs and greens on a kitchen counter, windowsill or in a patio create a colorful display with a variety of leaf shapes and various shades of greens and reds. Chives, cilantro, parsley, thyme and basil make a convenient kitchen garden.

Tomatoes

Choose the cherry-type tomatoes: Tiny Tim, Small Fry, Sweet 100 Patio and Pixie. Gain more space for your indoor garden area by growing tomatoes in an upside-down planter suspended from the ceiling. The plants grow downward out of a hole in the bottom of the planter.

Vegetables

Root vegetables such as radishes, beets, turnips, parsnips, potatoes and carrots will grow indoors. Radishes grow fast and carrots and potatoes harvested young provide tender baby carrots and potatoes for gourmet recipes. Cherry Belle and Icicle radishes reward you with crispy globes within four to six weeks. Danvers Half Long, Tiny Sweet and the fingerling varieties of carrots take longer to mature, but provide fresh, sweet flavor when they reach 3 to 4 inches in length. Grow Little Egypt and Early Red Ball beets for both their leafy green tops and the deep red globes that may be oven roasted or sauteed.

Peppers

Thin-walled peppers grow better indoors than the thick-walled bell pepper varieties. Include both spicy and mild peppers in your indoor garden. The Long Red Cayenne and tiny Thai peppers are visually attractive as they grow and yield fruit that can be used fresh or dried. Sweet Banana and Yolo Wonder peppers bring mild, sweet pepper flavors to classic dishes.

Herbs

Grow traditional windowsill garden herbs to enhance the flavors in traditional and ethnic cooking. Grow chives, cilantro and both curly leaf and flat-leaf Italian parsley from seed, keeping the soil moist and warm for germination. Add oregano and thyme plants from the nursery to broaden your palette of flavors. Trim the plants often to encourage vigorous growth, using the clippings in your cooking.

Sprouting Seeds

Sometimes you need nourishing vegetables immediately in an emergency. Waiting months to harvest a garden may be too long. An easy and fast approach to obtaining the nutrients vegetables provide is sprouting. Sprouting is simple, and sprouting kits can be purchased cheaply, or you can use items found around the house. Some good sprouting seeds are: alfalfa, mung beans, triticale, soy beans, lentils, whole peas, adzuki beans, clover, garbanzo beans, rye, wheat, beans, rice, and oats. The last five seeds mentioned sprout in only two days. The rest sprout in about three to five days.

Put a tablespoon of seed in bottom of a jar, half fill with water and leave to soak over night. Next day, drain the water out through the lid or muslin. All you need to do then is rinse twice daily until ready to eat. You can sprout fenugreek, alfalfa, red cabbage, onion, beet and others this way.

Boost their Light

LED grow lights are special panels that contain LED diodes and can be used to promote the growth of plants without the presence of the sun. They use less power than traditional grow lights, in fact they are up to 90% more efficient.

Growing Tips

To help your plants from drying out, use an oscillating fan to move the air in your indoor garden. Use reflective surfaces around your indoor plants to optimize artificial lights. You can paint the walls white and even hang mirrors to make the most of the light.

A good general rule is to plant seeds at a depth three times the diameter of the seed. Fine seeds should be scattered on top of the soil and pressed down lightly. Climbing plants such as tomatoes, peas, and beans should be planted near stakes or trellises. Plant your seeds with enough room to enable you to move around the plants so you can weed them even after the plants have grown.

Saving Seeds

Saving your own seeds can be time consuming. However, when you replant from seeds that you save, it usually yields plants that are better suited to your particular soil and climate.

Once you have planted your garden, watch for and keep track of the healthiest non-hybrid, self-pollinating plants. These are the easiest to harvest good seeds from. Self-pollinating plants are able to produce seeds on their own, without the aid of wind, bees, or other insects. Hybrid plants will grow great the first time, but seeds harvested from a hybrid plant may yield unusual produce.

If this is your first try at saving seeds, start with beans, squash, dill, and/or marigolds. Once the seeds have been collected it is essential to dry them thoroughly before storing them. Excess moisture can cause the seeds to mold and rot. Use a fine screen or a sheet of plastic or glass to dry the seeds on. Do not use paper towels — the seeds will stick and become hard to separate. Dry the seeds in a warm place out of direct sunlight.

Seeds that you have collected can be stored in coin envelopes, small pill bottles, empty film canisters, or other small envelopes and containers. Label each container or packet with seed type and any other relevant information. Then store in a dry, cool place. If you use envelopes to store the seeds you may also want to place them in a jar with an airtight seal to keep out moisture.

Storing Seeds

Keeping seeds dry during storage is most important. Moisture causes seeds to rot. See to it that moisture from the air or any other sources does not get into the seeds. A simple, inexpensive but efficient storage container can be made out of a canning glass jar with an airtight lid. Get a clean jar. Make sure it is dry. As a precaution against moisture, put a layer of powdered charcoal (dessicant) on the bottom of the jar. One-half inch thickness is sufficient. If silica gel or calcium chloride is available, these should be substituted for the charcoal. Place the seeds in an envelope so they do not get in contact with the charcoal; place in a jar and cover tightly. Low temperature prolongs the life of the seeds. With this method of storage, seeds can be kept without significant germination loss.

The average number of years seeds will remain viable if properly stored:

  • Asparagus — 3 years
  • Beans — 3 years
  • Beets — 4 years
  • Broccoli — 3 years
  • Brussels Sprouts — 4 years
  • Cabbage — 4 years
  • Carrots — 3 years
  • Cauliflower — 4 years
  • Celeriac — 3 years
  • Celery — 3 years
  • Chard,Swiss chard — 4 years
  • Chicory — 4 years
  • Chinese Cabbage — 3 years
  • Collards — 5 years
  • Corn — 2 years
  • Corn Salad-(mache) — 5 years
  • Cress — 5 years
  • Cucumbers — 5 years
  • Eggplant — 4 years
  • Endive — 5 years
  • Kale — 4 years
  • Kohlrabi — 3 years
  • Leeks — 2 years
  • Lettuce — 6 years
  • Muskmelon — 5 years
  • Okra — 2 years
  • Onions — 1 year
  • Parsnips — 1 year
  • Peas — 3 years
  • Peppers — 2 years
  • Radishes — 5 years
  • Rutabagas — 4 years
  • Salsify — 1 year
  • Scorzonera — 2 years
  • Sorrel — 4 years
  • Southern Peas — 3 years
  • Spinach — 3 years
  • Squash & Pumpkins — 4 years
  • Tomatoes — 4 years
  • Turnips — 4 years
  • Watermelon — 4 years

Food Precautions

As water is used in food preparation, any water precautions should also include food precautions. The general rules apply in that any food consumed should be at least a fortnight old. In some cases this is particularly difficult and in some cases this is impossible (cow's milk for instance). The level of adherence to the full level of food precautions will depend upon the level of water precautions in use and hence the level of threat assumed at the time.

Particular care should be taken outside the home environment where any contact with food should be avoided.

Storage Tips
  • Keep food in a dry, cool spot — a dark area if possible.
  • Keep food covered at all times.
  • Open food boxes or cans care-fully so that you can close them tightly after each use.
  • Wrap cookies and crackers in plastic bags, and keep them in tight containers.
  • Empty opened packages of sugar, dried fruits and nuts into screw-top jars or airtight cans to protect them from pests.
  • Inspect all food for signs of spoilage before use.
  • Use foods before they go bad, and replace them with fresh supplies, dated with ink or marker. Place new items at the back of the storage area and older ones in front.
Nutrition Tips

During and right after a disaster, it will be vital that you maintain your strength. So remember:

  • Eat at least one well-balanced meal each day.
  • Drink enough liquid to enable your body to function properly (two quarts a day).
  • Take in enough calories to enable you to do any necessary work.
  • Include vitamin, mineral and protein supplements in your stockpile to assure adequate nutrition.

The Survivalist's Garden

Credit: National Geographic. By Rick Austin, author of Secret Garden of Survival-How to Grow a Camouflaged Food-Forest.
Secret Garden of Survival-How to Grow a Camouflaged Food-Forest™ and Secret Garden of Survival™ are trademarks of Rick Austin.

Imagine a garden that takes up very little space, but grows five times more food per square inch than a traditional garden. A garden that you plant once in your lifetime, but provides food for 30 years without any fertilization, pesticides, or weeding… and it's all disguised to look like overgrown underbrush!

Perennials only have to be planted once and they will produce food for a lifetime. Whereas, garden vegetables (annuals), have to be replanted year after year from seed. And because of the natural life-cycle of perennials, they have the time to put down deeper and longer roots, which makes them able to get more nutrients, reach water deeper in the soil, and makes them less susceptible to seasonal variations in sunshine, rainfall, cold and heat than an annual plant.

In nature, plants don’t grow in rows and don’t need to be cultivated, trimmed, weeded, or treated with pesticides. Yet nature has been growing fruits, nuts, berries and herbs successfully for millions of years without man’s help. In fact, many plants often maintain symbiotic relationships where each plant benefits by being with the other. Our Secret Garden of Survival mimics the way that plants grow in nature. And in nature, plants grow together in three dimensions: some taller, some shorter, and they grow in a way where all plants get adequate sun, air, rain, and oftentimes share nutrients and benefit from natural pest control.


Garden Plan (large)
Credit: National Geographic

Plants in nature often grow in concentric circles where the tallest plant (often a fruit or nut tree) provides shade underneath it for shade-seeking plants, and outside of that shade, a layer of shrubs like blueberries and blackberries can grow. Outside of that circle of shrubs, herbs can grow. Herbs in this position have the added benefit of attracting insect pollinators as well as predatory wasps, which will feed on many of the "bad" bugs that would normally attack the fruit on the central tree and berry bushes. These herbs, in a way, provide a defensive perimeter around the fruit, nuts, and berries that bad bugs must cross at their own peril. Finally, around the herb layer is a lower level of ground cover, which often accumulates nitrogen (a natural fertilizer) that these plants take from the air, and make it available to the surrounding plants.

Because we are growing in three dimensions, we can produce five times more food in the same space that you would plant a traditional garden. And because these plants all grow together, and are in some cases intertwined, it does not look like a traditional garden, but instead looks "natural" — like overgrown underbrush, which camouflages the garden from marauders.

One of the biggest benefits of this type of garden for preppers is that it is almost no work to maintain, compared to gardening with annual vegetables. And in a doomsday scenario, preppers are going to have enough work to do, without having to tend to a garden every day, while exposing themselves to potential enemies. Further, by planting primarily perennials — and a large variety of them — you will always have food for you and your family each year, no matter what the short term summer weather brings.

Aquaponics

About Aquaponics

Aquaponics is a food production system that uses nutrient-rich water from fish culture to irrigate and fertilize plants. After the plants have absorbed the nutrients, the water is recirculated to the fish rearing tanks. This combination of aquaculture and hydroponics recycles both water and nutrients, resulting in an efficient use of resources.

Building a system

Related information

Spirulina Algae

About

Where is spirulina found?

Spirulina is found in both salt water and fresh water in the wild. It is also commercially cultivated in African countries, France, China, India, Thailand, and the United States. Most dietary supplement manufacturers get their supply of spirulina from commercial spirulina farms.

History of spirulina

Spirulina has been consumed by many people for a very long time in many countries. It grew in many lakes, seas, and oceans all around the world. Spirulina was found growing in Lake Chad and Mexico's Lake Texcoco, and people of these regions have been drying and eating spirulina since ancient times.

Spirulina was first discovered by Hernando Cortez and his Spanish Conquistadors in 1519. Cortez observed that Spirulina was served and eaten at the tables of the Aztecs during his visit in Lake Texcoco. The health benefits of spirulina were first discovered by explorer Pierre Dangeard who observed that flamingos were able to survive by consuming these blue-green algae. Botanist Jean Leonard supported the findings of Dangeard and people soon started to commercialise spirulina to reap its benefits. The first spirulina processing plant, Sosa Texcoco, was set up in 1969 by the French.

Spirulina health benefits

Spirulina is high in antioxidants. Some of the antioxidants found in spirulina include selenium, phenolic acid, vitamin E, and carotenoids. Antioxidants destroy the free radicals in the body that damage cells. According to experts from the American Dietetic Association (ADA), antioxidants can also protect the body from cancer, infections, diabetes, and heart disease.

Spirulina also has antimicrobial properties that destroy bacteria and viruses such as HIV-1, enterovirus, cytomegalovirus, measles, mumps, influenza A, and herpes simplex. Studies have also confirmed that spirulina can also boost the body's immune system by making it produce more monocytes, natural killer cells, and macrophages. Monocytes, natural killer cells, and macrophages destroy invading pathogens in the body. According to a study published in an Indian scientific journal, spirulina can also destroy fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans (yeast infections), Aspergillusniger, and Aspergillusfumigatus.

Nutritional benefits

The spirulina algae are also rich in protein, valine, leucine, isoleucine, omega-6, omega-3, vitamin B1, zinc, vitamin B2, iron, beta carotene, manganese, copper, and many other nutrients.

Growing

This micro algae is 60% all-vegetable protein, rich in beta carotene, iron, vitamin B-12 and the rare essential fatty acid, GLA. It offers a striking profile of vitamins, minerals and phytonutrents. Scientific studies show remarkable health benefits.

Like many freshwater algae, spirulina has a wide range of PH’s in which it can grow. In fact, spirulina can be grown from a range of 3.5 up to, and above a pH of 10. Without having access to laboratory conditions, it seems nearly impossible to just grow spirulina, and no other algae in the same water. What I discover is if grown in Distilled Water, and no other algae is present in the water then your almost guaranteed, spirulina will be the only algae present.

Almost is not good enough. After reading a scientific journal from 1979, I found an experiment done in France where spirulina troughs were exposed to the air. To keep other forms of algae out of the growing spirulina exposed to the elements, the growers raised the pH of the water above 8.6 pH. It seems as though no other algae will grow above a pH of 8.5-9.

To review, the base for growing spirulina is Distilled water. And to get the pH above 8.6, I recommend using a product named “PH UP!” & use pH test strips for a range up 8.6 pH. No test strips are available for public sale above 8.6.

The types of Spirulina grown for food thrive in natural soda lakes, the water of which is very rich in natron, a substance rich in both sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and sodium carbonate (soda ash). Spirulina medium always contains a lot of one or both of these ingredients. The soda pushes up the pH to 10+, which is the range that Spirulina likes best. You also made the situation worse by bubbling in carbon dioxide, which lowers pH. The addition of carbon dioxide to algae medium must be monitored closely using a pH meter.

What’s next? We need to know the ideal temperature for growing spirulina. Spirulina grows best at 86°F. Above 92°F, the algae cannot photosynthesise sun light and becomes weak and looses viscosity. Any temperature below 82°F and the algae continues to grow, just not at a maximum rate. 86°F is ideal. The one stable environment which can maintain this steady temperature and is readily available in the home is an aquarium.

We can’t just dump “PH UP!” into an aquarium filled with distilled water and raise the temperature to 86°F and grow spirulina. It would be quite an expense in distilled water and chemicals (PH UP!). Instead, we need to consider the requirement I have not mentioned yet. That is, spirulina needs to be stirred in order to expose each piece of fine weave of the algae to as much light as possible. What we need, and what I've seen some laboratories use are “Growing Tubes”.

I'll give you a quick run down of my version of “Growing Tubes”, both in expensive and easy to build in a day. I went to Home Depot and bought a 1″ wide, 8' long clear tube used for protecting fluorescent lights in case of breaking. Also, I bought 90° angle 1″ to ½″ pcv pipe elbows (½″ screw in female) (10 items) and also got ½″ screw in male plugs (10 items). I cut the clear plastic tube into five equal sizes (18″ each). I filed down the 1″ elbows, until they fit snuggly into the clear tube ends. Drilled a hole, small enough for air line tubing to be pushed through, into the male plugs.

So when assembled end to end, a “Growing tube” would look like this: 1 Male plug screwed into one ½″ elbow. The other end of the ½″ elbow is 1″ wide and fits into the 1″ wide plastic tube. The other end of the plastic tube looks the same way. Now all that is needed is to use non-toxic silicon to make the air line feeding in both ends air tight. Oh, and one side of the air line inside the elbow will need an air stone attached to produce small bubbles. That’s it! For about $18 you can build five “Growing Tubes”. The growing tubes will be housed in your aquarium, and will maintain a steady temperature without receiving or giving contaminants to it’s environment.

To allow the spirulina algae to grow under the best conditions, and satisfy the need for “Stirring”, CO2 will be pumped into the “Growing Tubes”. Last, the algae needs nutritional a supplement to grow. I found 2 solutions used in laboratories for growing spirulina. Solution A & Solution B. They need to be kept separate for storage purposes, and should only be combined when mixing your solution in the growing tubes. A cap full from each container is enough per 1 gallon of distilled water.

Ok, so where does the starter solution come from? We can’t use store bought spirulina power, because it was been “deactivated” to keep it from going bad. Commercially, the spirulina is raised to a temperature of 120°F to “deactivate” it. Another alternative for storage is freezing it, but it only keeps for 6 months using this method and no such format is available for public sale.

The gold mine find was stumbling onto University of Texas web site (http://www.utex.org). They are the largest publicly available supplier of algae strains in the world. There are a few other one off laboratories that will sell live spirulina to the public, but university of texas has several strains. I found that “Spirulina sp.” is the same strain used commercially for human consumption.

It takes approximately 90 days to grow spirulina in “Growing tubes”. Harvest the spirulina by dumping the contents of the “growing tubes” into 50 micron wide cloth. The particles of spirulina that pass through the 50 micron cloth are young enough to be your starter for your next culture, or 90 day cycle. To lower the pH of the 8.6+ spirulina, all that is needed it to squeeze the water liquid from the pulp. A press will do the trick. I wouldn't recommend doing this by hand, for if any liquid remains in the spirulina, it will effect the pH of the environment the spirulina is released into.

Once the spirulina algae has been de-liquified by pressing out the water, it can be cut up and stored in zip lock bags, in the freezer for up to 6 months. Fresh Spirulina, once removed from the preserving alkaline environment of the tank, is like raw eggs in its perishability — it should be eaten or refrigerated within an hour or so of harvest. It will last in the fridge for up to three days. If frozen, it lasts indefinitely; if dehydrated (and kept dry), it will last for about a year, longer if kept in an airtight container. It’s not hard to tell if it does go bad — it smells like rotten eggs.

Read more:

Water Precautions

To overcome the treat of contamination of the mains water supplies, water precautions can be instigated at any time. As it is difficult to switch from using mains water totally, there is an interim level of water precaution that avoids using mains water for oral consumption; this is called Drinking Water Precaution.

Any pollution of the mains water supplies will show within two days for a chemical agent contamination, or within a fortnight for a biological agent contamination. So it is assumed that any saved mains water that is a fortnight or older is safe for use.

A normally active person needs to drink at least two quarts (½ a gallon) of water each day but because you also need water for sanitary purposes and, possibly, for cooking, you should store at least one gallon of water per person per day. Carbonated beverages do not meet drinking-water requirements. Caffeinated drinks and alcohol dehydrate the body, which increases the need for drinking water.

It should be noted that water is used in food or for food preparation, so any precautions taken with water should also be applied to food.

The level of adherence to the water and food precautions will depend upon the level of threat assumed at the time. Just remember, "it is better to be safe than sorry" and if the mains water system is contaminated by chemical or biological agents they are likely to be deadly — you don't get a second chance.

As water is used in food preparation, any water precautions should also include food precautions.

In the long term, as the terrorist threat doesn't seem to be diminishing, it is advisable to get into a natural, normal routine to minimise possible contamination at any time. This can be done easily for the majority of foodstuffs where they can (with planning) be brought a fortnight in advance. A system of buying (or storing) water for drinking and food preparation can also be set in place for long-term use.

How to Store Water

Store your water in thoroughly washed plastic, glass, fibreglass or enamel-lined metal containers. Never use a container that has held toxic substances. Plastic containers, such as soft drink bottles, are best. You can also purchase food-grade plastic buckets or drums. Containers for water should be rinsed with a diluted bleach solution (one part bleach to ten parts water) before use. Previously used bottles or other containers may be contaminated with microbes or chemicals. Do not rely on untested devices for decontaminating water. Seal water containers tightly, label them and store in a cool, dark place. Rotate water every six months.

Drinking Water Precautions

This level of water precaution forbids using mains water for oral consumption but allows its use for other proposes. All drinking water or water used in food (or diluted in drink) must be at least a fortnight old. This can be bottled water brought and stored or it can be mains water that has been stored in a container.

Particular care should be taken outside the home environment where buying food or drink (or having them offered to you) must be resisted. You cannot guarantee that safe water is used — even for canned or bottled goods.

Full Water Precautions

This level of water precaution forbids using suspect water for any propose that may cross contaminate the skin in any way. Imagine water (or any other liquid) from an uncertain source is acid and anything that is in contact with this acid and then comes in contact with your person is dangerous – not too far removed from the actual situation if contamination occurs. All drinking water, all water used in food preparation and water used for any other purpose (washing, clothes, dishes etc.) must be at least a fortnight old. This can be bottled water brought and stored or it can be mains water that has been stored in a container. That means: no shower, no washing machine or dishwasher usage; and do not use the garden hose except with extreme care.

Mains water can still be used for flushing the toilet providing every care is taken to prevent any cross contamination.

Particular care should be taken outside the home environment where any contact with water, or any other liquid, should be avoided.

Where contamination of the person is suspected decontamination should be performed and every care should be taken to watch for symptoms that may suggest contamination has occurred.

Emergency Outdoor Water Sources

If you need to find water out-side your home you can use these sources. Be sure to purify the water before drinking it.

  • Rainwater
  • Streams, rivers and other moving bodies of water
  • Ponds and lakes
  • Natural springs

Avoid water with floating material, an odour or dark colour. Use saltwater only if you distil it first. You should not drink floodwater.

Ways to Purify Water

In addition to having a bad odour and taste, contaminated water can contain micro-organisms that cause diseases such as dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis. You should purify all water of uncertain purity before using it for drinking, food preparation or hygiene.

There are many ways to purify water. None is perfect. Often the best solution is a combination of methods. Four easy purification methods are outlined below. These measures will kill most microbes but will not remove other contaminants such as heavy metals, salts and most other chemicals. Before purifying, let any suspended particles settle to the bottom, or strain them through layers of paper towel or clean cloth.

SODIS — Safe drinking water in 6 hours. Solar water disinfection — the SODIS method — is a simple procedure to disinfect drinking water. Contaminated water is filled in a transparent PET-bottle or glass bottle and exposed to the sun for 6 hours. During this time, the UV-radiation of the sun kills diarrhoea generating pathogens. The SODIS-method helps to prevent diarrhoea and thereby is saving lives of people.

The SODIS efficiency is dependent on the amount of solar energy available:
• Expose the bottle to the sun for 6 hours if the sky is cloudless or up to 50% cloudy.
• Expose the bottle to the sun for 2 consecutive days if the sky is more than 50% cloudy.
• At a water temperature of at least 50°C, 1 hour exposure time is sufficient.
• During days of continuous rainfall, SODIS does not perform satisfactorily. Rainwater harvesting or boiling is recommended during these days

BOILING — Boiling is the safest method of purifying water. Bring water to a rolling boil for 3-5 minutes, keeping in mind that some water will evaporate. Let the water cool before drinking. Boiled water will taste better if you put oxygen back into it by pouring the water back and forth between two clean containers. This will also improve the taste of stored water.

DISINFECTION — You can use household liquid bleach to kill micro-organisms. Use only regular household liquid bleach that contains 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite. Do not use scented bleaches, colour safe bleaches or bleaches with added cleaners. Add 16 drops of bleach per gallon of water stir and let stand for 30 minutes. If the water does not have a slight bleach odour, repeat the dosage and let stand another 15 minutes. The only agent used to purify water should be household liquid bleach. Other chemicals, such as iodine or water treatment products sold in camping or surplus stores that do not contain 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite as the only active ingredient, are not recommended and should not be used. While the two methods described above will kill most microbes in water, distillation will remove microbes that resist these methods, and heavy metals, salts and most other chemicals.

DISTILLATION — Distillation involves boiling water and then collecting the vapour that condenses back to water. The condensed vapour will not include salt and other impurities. To distil, fill a pot halfway with water. Tie a cup to the handle on the pot's lid so that the cup will hang right side up when the lid is upside-down (make sure the cup is not dangling into the water) and boil the water for 20 minutes. The water that drips from the lid into the cup is distilled.

Rationing

Having an ample supply of clean water is a top priority in an emergency. A normally active person needs to drink at least two quarts of water each day. Hot environments can double that amount. Children, nursing mothers and ill people will need even more. If supplies run low, never ration water. Drink the amount you need today, and try to find more for tomorrow. You can minimise he amount of water your body needs by reducing activity and staying cool.

If activity is reduced, healthy people can survive on half their usual food intake for an extended period and without any food for many days. Food, unlike water, may be rationed safely, except for children and pregnant women.

Edible wild food

Credit: http://www.thebestofrawfood.com/wild-edible-plants.html

Wild edible plants are raw super food! They have incredible energizing and healing powers and they are absolutely FREE!!! This is the best cost saving and personal energizer tip for raw foodists! Below you can find an overview of the most popular and available wild edibles.

So what plants can you eat? The wild edible plants below are all great in salads and juices and you can find them anywhere. Most people know these plants already and they are very easy to recognize and find.

And if you don't know them? The internet will help you tremendously. Wikipedia is my favorite internet resource. It shows great pictures and describes how the wild plants look and where to find them. If you'd rather like someone to teach you in person, I suggest going to the scouts. I find them very knowledgeable on this subject and a great resource.

Plantain


Credit: calindarabus (large)
  Plantain is another ubiquitous edible wild plant, found in a wide variety of climates and locations (including most yards and public parks), and favoring wetter areas. The leaves are edible both raw and boiled, and the seeds can be harvested and eaten as well. In addition, plantain is a great plant to know for treating minor wounds and insect bites. Simply chew up several leaves and apply to the wound, repeating as desired.

Dandelions

Dandelion leafs are great in salads and juices. Raw leafs have a slightly bitter taste. You can eat the entire thing raw or cook them to take away the bitterness, usually in the spring they are less bitter. You can also eat the unopened buds raw (great in salads). The leafs are high in vitamin A, vitamin C and iron, carrying more iron and calcium than spinach.

Lambsquarters


Credit: frankenstoen (large)
  Use the leaves raw in salads, or cooked in soups, in mixed cooked greens, or in any dish that calls for cooking greens. Lamb’s Quarters are susceptible to leaf miners; be careful to harvest plants that are not infested. Although Lamb’s Quarters are best before the flowers appear, if the fresh young tips are continuously harvested, lamb’s quarters can be eaten all summer. Lamb’s Quarters is also called Pigweed, Fat Hen, and Goosefoot. You can eat the leafs of this well known weed. The seeds are high in protein, vitamin A, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium (related to Quinoa).

Nettles

This is my favorite wild edible plant. In the Netherlands this is a notorious weed. You can find it everywhere. The plant is so strong! It survives both the hot sun and temperatures of -20.

Nettle juice tastes surprisingly good and did you know that the plant has even more minerals than wheat grass?

You can eat the very young leafs in your salad, but the older ones sting so you may not like to eat them raw. When you juice them, the stinging disappears. The fresh or dried leafs of nettle can be used to make a tea (don't heat the water above 70 C or 179 F).

If you do get stung, rub the leafs of a plantain against the sore spot to relief the pain.

Shepherd’s Purse


Credit: discovery.com (large)
  Also used as a medicinal plant, shepherd’s purse is a great source for spring and fall greens, and can be found in many of the same places where dandelion and purslane grow. The younger leaves are edible raw and have a very mild taste. Older leaves can be boiled in the same manner as dandelions, to remove bitterness, and the seed pods are also edible.

Clovers

This is a wild edible plant everyone knows. The clover leafs are delicious in salads or juices. Clovers are a valuable survival food, as they are high in protein, widespread, and abundant. They are not easy to digest raw, but this can be easily fixed by juicing them. Dried flower heads and seed pods can also be ground up into a nutritious flour and mixed with other foods. Dried flower heads can also be steeped in hot water for a healthy, tasty tea.

Garlic Mustards

The leafs, flowers and fruit are edible as food for humans, and are best when young. They have a mild flavor of both garlic and mustard, and are used in salads and pesto. Edible parts: Flowers, leaves, roots and seeds. Leaves can be eaten in any season, when the weather gets hot, the leaves will have a taste bitter. Flowers can be chopped and tossed into salads. The roots can be collected in early spring and again in late fall, when no flower stalks are present.

Daisies

You really can eat daisies! I never knew they where edible, let alone good for you. I learned all the great facts about this easy to find flower on a super fun and educational wild nature hike lead by Sergei Boutenko:

Greater Plantains

The leafs of this strong and common weed are edible and used in herbal medicine, but can be somewhat tough. The taste is that of very bitter salad greens with a lingering aftertaste like spinach. Young leafs are recommended as they are more tender. The leafs when dried make a good tea.

Other plantains are considered wild edible plants too but they don't have as much nutritional value as the greater plantain.

Pine

There are over a hundred different species of pine. Not only can the food be used as a supply of nourishment but, also can be used for medicinal purposes. Simmer a bowl of water and add some pine needles to make tea. Native americans used to ground up pine to cure skurvy, its rich in vitamin C.

Wild Grasses

Did you know that all wild grasses are edible and that there are more than 400 different kind of grasses? Grasses are super healthy and you can find this super food for free. Wheatgrass, for example, contains most of the vitamins and minerals needed for human health. It's a whole meal and complete protein with about 30 enzymes. It has up to 70% chlorophyll (which builds the blood). It's an excellent source of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc. Wheatgrass cleanses the body (natural raw detoxer) and it eliminates body and breath odors. The natural value of wheatgrass juice is so high that many people don't feel the "cravings" that lead to overeating. It's great for the skin and first and second decree burns.

Berries

Many wild berries are not safe to eat, it’s best to stay away from them. There are safe:

Wild strawberries

These berries are rich in vitamin A, C, and K. In minerals calcium, iron, potassium, and silicon. They are good for fever, diarrhea, dysentery, liver, kidneys, and much more.

Blackberries

Wild blackberries are 100% safe to eat and easy to recognize. They have red branches that have long thorns similar to a rose, the green leaves are wide and jagged. They are best to find in the spring when their white flowers bloom, they are clustered all around the bush and their flowers have 5 points. The berries ripen around August to September.

Elderberries

An elderberry shrub can grow easily grow about 10 feet and yield tons of food, their leaf structure is usually 7 main leaves on a long stretched out stem, the leaves are long and round and the leaves themselves have jagged edges. These are easiest to identify in the spring as they blossom white clustered flowers that resembles an umbrella. Mark the spot and harvest the berries when they’re ripe around September. Elderberries are known for their flu and cold healing properties, you can make jelly from them and are very sweet and delicious.

Gooseberries

These are also common in the woods in northern Missouri, the branches are grey and have long red thorns, and the leaves are bright green and have 5 points, they have rounded edges and look similar to the shape of a maple leaf. The flowers in the spring are very odd looking, they are bright red and hang down, the berries ripen around late May early June.

Mulberries

Mulberry leaves have two types, one spade shape and a 5 fingered leaf. Both have pointed edges.

Nuts

Pecans

The trees mature around 20-30 ft, some can grow up to 100 ft tall. The leaves are bright green and long, smooth edges and the pecans themselves are grown in green pods and when ripe the pods open and the seeds fall to the ground.

Hazelnuts

Hazelnut trees are short and tend to be around 12-20 ft tall, the leaves are bright green and have pointed edges, the hazelnuts themselves grown in long strands of pods and generally ripen by September and October.

Walnuts

Walnut trees are the most recognisable and the tallest nut tree in North America, they can range from 30-130 feet tall. The leaf structure is very similar to the peacan, the leaves are spear like and grow on a long stem 6-8 leaves on both sides. The leaves edges are smooth and green. The walnuts tend to grow in clusters and ripen in the fall.

Acorns

Acorns can tend to be bitter, they are highly recognisable as well, they should be eaten cooked and a limited amount.

Hickory Nuts

Hickory nut trees can grow about 50-60 ft tall, their green leaves are spear like and can grow very large, they have pointed edges. The hickory nut is round and ten to ripen in September or October.

Medical Matters

A collection of useful bits & bobs:

Survival Equipment

  On person  
  Glasses/case  
  Sun glasses/case  
  Watch  
  Mobile phone/case  
  LED Torch — small AA  
  Lighter  
  Pen knife  
  Multi-tool  
  Wallet  
  Medication  

  Bum bag or Handbag   Backpack of the day, (Either a Lowe Alpine day pack or a medium REI.
All packed in large ziplock bags
  GPS Maps   compass
  First aid pack — small Traverse Newstar, depending on the season):
  Sewing kit — small One pair of cheap imitation Carhartts work pants
  Rechargable Batteries AA wool shirt
  Long life batteries AA two changes of underwear
  Survival knife two pairs of wool socks with capilene liner socks
  Snack food two t-shirts
  Small bottle of water change of longjohns (late fall through early spring)
  Compass small towel
  Survival bag gloves (lightweight wool liners and medium-weight leather shells)
  Socks wool watch cap
  Hand Towel shatter-resistant sunglasses
  Tooth brush wool scarf
  Vanity bag (comb, nail file & clippers) Spyderco folding knife
  Water filter straw Buck Special sheath knife
  boot laces Gerber Multi-Tool
    50' duct tape
    50' parachute cord
    one bottle, aspirin
    one bottle, Pepcid
one tube, generic triple antibiotic ointment
ten 3"x3" gauze pads
30 assorted bandaids
one roll, adhesive tape
two pairs, surgical gloves
8-oz bottle, Doctor Bronners miracle patent medicine soap or whatever.
one bottle, SPF 15 waterproof sunblock
one bottle, 100% DEET bug dope
3 days worth of Nicoret (TEOTW would be a bad time for a relapse :)
Mini-Mag light, extra bulb, two sets of extra AA batteries
six Cyalume light sticks, assorted colors
AM radio, with more batteries of its own.
Yaesu 2M/440 HT, with yet more batteries

Food bag containing: Hot cereal mix, tea bags, jerky, powerbars, ramen
noodles, Tabasco sauce, small sealed bottle of vitamin pills, and the like
(Roughly 10,000 calories total)

MSR Whisperlite 600 with about a quart of white gas

two 1Q Nalgene lexan water bottles, two 1Q army surplus canteens, and a
half-gallon water bag.
One MSR MiniWorks filter-make sure that the filter element is in good shape.

Mil-surplus ripstop poncho with liner
sleeping bag and ridgerest pad(Oct 15-april 15)

  Backpack  
  Water bottle  
  Combat Jacket  
  Scrim scarf  
  Dark sweat shirt  
  Gloves — woollen  
  Combat Trousers  
  Boots — combat  
  Boot cleaning kit  
  Binoculars  
  Putties/Gaiters  
  Body warmer  
  Body armour  
  Camouflage cream  
  Yoke  
  First aid pouch  
  Ammo pouch  
  Water bottle pouch  
  Utility pouch  
  Respirator pouch  
  Butt pack  
  NBC roll  
  Helmet  
  Gas mask  
  NBC suit  
  NBC gloves  
  NBC over boots  
  NBC repair kit  
  NBC decontamination kit  
  Shorts  
  Socks  
  Entrenching tool  
  Machete  
  Camouflage netting  
  T-shirts  
  Ground sheet  
  Towel — quickdry  
  Boot laces  

  Rucksack  
  Gloves — cold weather  
  Sweatshirt  
  Thermal long johns  
  Poncho  
  Jumper — fleece  
  Boots — walking  
  Tracksuit trousers  
  Socks  
  Map case  
  Pen/pencil/chino-graph  
  Notebook  
  Knife/fork/spoon  
  Oil stone  
  CB  
  LED Torch- head AA  
  Sleeping bag  
  Sleeping mat  
  Mirror  
  Tent/pasha  
  Blanket — fleece in a cusion cover  
  Condoms  
  Lightweight stove  
  Mess tins  
  Tin opener  
  Fish wire/float/hooks  
  Water purifying tablets  
  Sterilising tablets  
  Rope  
  Food for 5 days  
  Hair scissors  
  Shaver  
  Hat- cold weather  
  Lighter flints  
  Lighter fuel  
  Rechargable Batteries — 3 torches  
  Solar battery recharger AA & C/D  

  Overnight bag  
  Jacket – water/wind rest  
  Coat – water proof  
  Jumper/sweat shirt  
  T-shirt  
  Jeans  
  Shorts  
  Pants  
  Socks  
  Wellington boots  

  Plastic containers  
  12v Battery Recharger AA & C/D  
  Radio  
  Torch — large  
  Fire extinguisher  
  Fuel can  
  Anti-freeze  
  Motor Oil can  
  Siphon tube  
  Trolly Jack  
  Tyre pump  
  Spares  
  Manual  
  Rags  
  Phone charger  
  Maps — road  
  CB  
  Emergency food  
  Tow rope  
  First aid kit  
  Water  
     
  Tool Box  
  Tools  
     

  Tool bag  
  Toilet rolls  
  Tissues  
  Can opener (wind type)  
  Kitchen rolls  
  Ruler/tape measure  
  Gas cooking stove  
  Candles  
  Bottle opener  
  Cup/plate  
  Cork screw  
  Water containers  
  Bolt cutters  
  Glass cutter  
  Bush saw  
  Soldering iron/solder  
  Crow bar  
  Sledge hammer  

     
  Replicas  
  Air Rifle  
  Air Pistol  
  Cross bow  
  Shotgun/Rifle/Handgun  
  Shoulder holster  
  Blanks  
  Pellets  
  Sling shot  
  Sling shot bands  
  Axe  

  Wheeled Suitcase  
  Seeds and Sprouting Kit  
  Water filter — large  
  Water making kit  
  Food Store  
www.000webhost.com