Defence for Future incidents

Military Field Manuals


US Army Ranger Handbook
US Army Survival Handbook
US Army Survivability Manual
US Army Camouflage Manual
US Army Special Forces Medical Handbook
First Aid for Soldiers
Sniper Training
Combat Survival
Survival, Evasion, Escape


Hand-to-hand combat

"Typically in hand-to-hand you have 30 seconds or less to incapacitate — any more time and you've bit off more than you can chew"

Sometimes when you are threatened with physical violence, a weapon to defend yourself with is not always available. Your hands, however, are always with you, and can be as lethal as any weapon. Below are a list of attacks that police are instructed not employ, as they may prove deadly.

  1. TEMPLE — A very susceptible vital spot. If struck with sufficient force, may cause unconsciousness or death.
  2. NASION — This is the summit of the nose. If struck with sufficient force may cause death.
  3. PHILTRUM — This is the area between the upper lip and the bottom of the nose. Attack to this area may also cause unconsciousness or death.
  4. HOOK TO JAW — A powerful hook punch to the front side of jaw may snap an enemy's neck. Fatal.
  5. ADAM'S APPLE — A sharp blow here may cause enemy to asphyxiate.
  6. SOLAR PLEXUS — It's between the bottom of the ribs and the upper intestines. It resides over the stomach in the center and can cause temporary collapse of the Thoracic Diaphragm.
  7. TESTICLES — The strong, focused pain of a vicious low blow may cause shock, resulting in death.
  8. BASE OF CEREBELLUM — A powerful blow to the nape of the neck, causing mortal damage.
  9. COCCYX — A powerful blow to the tail bone. Fatal.
  10. FULL NELSON — Stand behind the enemy, put your arms under his, and lock your hands behind his head. Bending the neck forward may either break neck, asphyxiate enemy, or cut of supply of spinal fluid to brain, causing brain damage or death.
  11. HALF NELSON — Again, standing behind enemy, but one arm is used to pin one of enemy's arms.
  12. BRAIN BUSTER — Bend enemy over towards you, placing him in a headlock. Grab the back of his belt, and haul him into the air, vertical, upside-down. Allow yourself to fall backward, landing on your enemy's head, which will absorb your combined weight. Most effective on concrete or gravel.
  13. RUSSIAN OMELET — Cross enemy's legs. Fold enemy by pinning his shoulders to ground upside-down and placing his legs above him. Sit on his legs, folding the bass of the spine. Fatal.
  14. HEART PUNCH — A strongman's attack, it is simply a powerful blow to the heart. (Many years ago, the wrestler Ox killed an opposing wrestler with this attack.)
  15. UPPERCUT — An upward strike to the bottom of the jaw with the heel of the hand, causing the enemy's head to snap backward. May shatter vertebrae. Fatal.
  16. ABDOMEN — A substantial blow to this area may rupture a vital organ, causing death.
  17. RIB CAGE — A vicious shattering of the rib cage may cause grave internal bleeding.
  18. HEAD-TO-WALL PUNCH — A swift, hard, cold-cock punch to an enemy's face while he is standing near a wall may drive his head into it, causing the back of the skull to shatter fatally.
  19. PINNED DROP KICK — Standing behind enemy, holding his arms straight back. A drop kick to the back without releasing arms may severe spine, causing death.
  20. HEAD WRENCH — Grabbing an enemy's head by the mouth and the back of the skull, then twisting with a sudden, violent jerk to rend vertebrae, may easily cause death.
  21. CHOKE HOLD — Once a favourite of law enforcement officials, has often proved deadly. The right arm goes over the enemy's right shoulder, and grips the back of the head. The left arm comes over his left shoulder, reaches across neck, and grabs own right forearm. With enough pressure applied, causes brain damage or death.
  22. HEAD YANK — Bend enemy forward, grab head, and pull back with convincing force. May separate delicate vertebrae, causing death.

(View large)

Most Common Vulnerable points of the body


  1. Eyes:Use your fingers in a V-shape and attack in gouging motion.
  2. Nose (Extremely vulnerable) Strike with the knife edge of the hand along the bridge, which will cause breakage, sharp pain, temporary blindness, and if the blow is hard enough, death. Also, deliver a blow with the heel of your hand in an upward motion, this will shove the bone up into the brain causing death.
  3. Adam’s Apple: This spot is usually pretty well protected, but if you get the chance, strike hard with the knife edge of your hand. This should sever the wind-pipe, and then it’s all over in a matter of minutes.
  4. Temple: There is a large artery up here, and if you hit it hard enough, it will cause death. If you manage to knock your enemy down, kick him in the temple, and he’ll never get up again.
  5. Back of the Neck: A rabbit punch, or blow delivered to the base of the neck can easily break it, but to be safe, it is better to use the butt of a gun or some other heavy blunt object.
  6. Upper lip: A large network of nerves are located. These nerves are extrememly close to the skin. A sharp upward blow will cause extreme pain, and unconciosness.
  7. Ears: Coming up from behind an enemy and cupping the hands in a clapping motion over the victims ears can kill him immediately. The vibrations caused from the clapping motion will burst his eardrums, and cause internal bleeding in the brain.
  8. Groin: A VERY vulnerable spot. If left open, get it with knee hard, and he’ll buckle over very fast.
  9. Kidneys: A large nerve that branches off to the spinal cord comes very close to the skin at the kidneys. A direct blow with the knife edge of your hand can cause death.

Body Regions Divided


Effective Target Selection

Typically the human body is divided into three regions:

The head and neck, the trunk, and the limbs.

From there it can be further divided into the upper, middle and lower positions. Below is a listing of the most vulnerable parts in each region.

The Body is divided into three areas:

  1. upper position – top of head to the diaphragm
  2. middle position – Diaphragm to the groin
  3. lower position – groin to lower extremities
Upper position
  • Skull — any blow to the skull may cause cerebral concussion, unconsiousness, fracture, laceration (very often lethal) Parietal Bone – Top of head protecting the brain Frontal Bone – Forehead protecting brain and large blood vessels Temporal Bone – Side of head (temple) midway between the corner of the eye and ear. Temporal Artery is located here. Nasal Bone – Bone located in the nose Maxilla – Upper jaw Mandible – Lower jaw Zygoma – Cheek Bones (breakable) Lacrimal – Bones surrounding the eye.
  • Eye — necessary for vision, hemorrhages easily
  • Nose — extremely sensitive to trauma, fractures and moves directly into forebrain on upward trauma (causing death and/or loss of memory…haha)
  • Ear (trauma directly to ear can cause rupture to eardrum resulting in Severe Pain.
  • Neck Anterior – front of neck, contains adam’s apple, fractures relatively easy, causing loss of ability to inhale… Lateral – side of neck, contains muscles protecting large blood vessels, arteries and veins and large veins – trauma resulting in spasm of vessels decreasing oxygen resulting in unconsiousness causing hemorrhage and death (I say death is better with a hemorrhage anyway) Posterior – back of neck, trauma causing severe pain, unconsciousness.
  • Clavicle — collar bone, is easily fractured, and interestingly enough removes victims ability to move his arm away from his body!
  • Sternum — breast bone, extremely painful when injured.
  • Ribs — elastic arches of bones, easily broken, may puncture lungs or heart.
  • Axilla — Arm Pits, contain large blood vessels, trauma causes extreme pain and/or paralysis of the arms
  • Heart — in general area of left breast nipple, non-penetrating force can cause hemorrahage and often rupture
  • Arm Shoulder – trauma causing dislocation, severe pain or fracture
  • Elbow – trauma causing severe pain, fracture, dislocation, internal bleeding
  • Wrist and Hand – trauma causing severe pain, fracture, dislocation, rupture of blood vessels.
Middle Position

Diaphragm to groin, Diaphragm being the floor of the chest cavity.

  • Stomach — hemorrahage and extreme pain
  • Solar Plexus — great network of nerves location of dorsal aspect of stomach (the front part). Gives off nervous control to all abdominal organs. Trauma causes slow death.
  • Liver — located under right portion of Diaphragm, trauma causes severe pain and possible hemorrhage and death.
  • Kidneys — located on back of the abdomen, severe pain, severe hemorrhage causes death. Excellent target when side stepping to opponent’s side.
  • Small Intestine – it can be contracted around the belly button, causes severe pain and possible rupture
  • Large Intestine – in lower abdomen, can rupture, causes severe pain
  • Lumbar Area – Arch of lower back, trauma results in severe pain, possible fracture, permanent paralysis to the legs and pee-pee (dick)
Lower Position

Groin to lower extremities (legs)

  • Bladder — below belly button and above groin, trauma causes possible rupture (all urine spills out into the opponents body)
  • Inguinal Rings – to either side of the groin, trauma causes severe pain and possible herniation (he can’t stand straight for about a decade)
  • Pubic Symphysis – pubic bone in groin area; directly in the middle, trauma causing fracture (nothing else, he won’t die contrary to popular opinion)
  • Testicles & Scrotum (If they have any) – pouch containing the testes – extremely sensitive – trauma causing severe pain, hemorrhage
  • Sacrum — bony extension located on both sides of buttocks, trauma causing severe pain and fracture
  • Coccyx — tailbone, trauma causing severe pain and possible fracture
  • Legs
    • Hip Joint – prominent on top and side of leg, trauma causing pain and possible fracture Inner Thigh
    • upper and inner part of leg, trauma causing rupture of the large femoral blood vessels
    • Knee Front – trauma causing severe pain, dislocation and possible fracture
    • Back – trauma causing tearing of ligaments and popliteal blood vessels
    • Anterior Tibial – shin bone, trauma causing severe pain (in most cases, some people can’t feel that) and possible fracture (everyone feels that)
    • Anterior – instep, trauma causing fracture and severe pain
    • Posterior – back of heel, trauma causing pain and fractrure or tearing of the achilles tendon (making it difficult to walk).

Head and Neck


Pressure Points to the Head and Neck the 15 pressure points in this area as follows:

coronal suture I-C This region lays on top of the head, more towards the forehead. It is also known as the soft spot on babies. It is the space between the skull bones that is covered with a membrane that close up usually by 18 months, but the coronal structure is still weaker than the rest of the skull. Directly beneath this is the sensory portion of the brain & under that the optic cavity. A downward strike of about 45 degrees depending on the force could cause concussion, temporary blindness, unconsciousness, brain hemorrhage, even death (very powerful blow).
trigeminal nerve & frontal bone I-D This region is located just below the centermost point of the forehead The nerve is on the outside of the skull thus when the bone is struck it will trap the nerve. This could result in jarring the cerebral hemispheres, concussion, unconsciousness, impaired vision, & paralysis. If and only if maximum impact is applied, death could result from brain hemorrhage.
temple & fossa temporalis I-D I’m sure we all know where the temple is but for those of you that don’t know it is located on a horizontal plane across from the top of the ear. It is the recessed part on each side of the head. It is actually the bone tip of the sphenoid. The trigeminal nerve runs through the the temple. This nerve controls several facial functions. Also passing through is the middle meningeal artery which is the largest branch suppling dura matter. A direct hit could break the tip off the sphenoid causing it to enter the brain. The meningeal could burst. Contact to the trigeminal could result in loss of control of facial functions. Compression of the brain, hemorrhage, concussion, shock, & death are likely results of striking the temple with a horizontal blow directed towards the opposite temple.
eyes II-B The eyes are located…uh I think you know. The eyes are very sensitive even to the slightest touch. They are held in by fascia bulbi (a soft membrane) and eye muscles. This makes them easy to pop out. They are also very soft, and if a blow reached the vitreous body (center of eye) the eyeball would collapse. Other than causing temporary or permanent loss of sight a deep thrust could puncture the brain causing death.
ears II-B These are located on each side of the head. Air is easily trapped in the external acoustic meatus (the tunnel from the outer ear to the inner ear) and forced into the eardrum causing it to bust. This in turn ruptures the hammer or malleus within the middle ear. Damages would cause severe pain, loss of hearing, bleeding from the mouth and ear, and bleeding into the throat via the internal auditory tube. Also, the inner ear is the center of equilibrium (balance) for the cerebellum. a forceful strike could leave the victim sprawled on the ground with no balance! The blow should be delivered horizontally driving into the ear.
mastoid II-A The mastoid is located directly behind the earlobe. It is the recessed area where the skull meets the neck. It is filled with air pockets which are used to communicate with the middle ear. A thrust should not be used; rather apply pressure with a nuckle or thumbnail in an upward direction. Prolonged pressure could cause damage to the auditory system.
septal cartilage
II-A or II-D
Known more commonly as the nose the septal cartilage is the had substance that makes up the nose. Two strikes are used here for different measures II-A : a horizontal strike causing breakage of the septal cartilage and nasal bone which ruptures the angular vein producing a lot of blood along with great pain, however, not enough to stop some attackers II-D : an upward 45 degree strike forcing the septal cartilage through the internal nasal cavity and crista galli (a small bone formation between the nasal cavity & the brain) into the brain. Death would be instantaneous because of compression of the brain.
anterior nasal spine
This is located beneath the nose and above the lips. It is the area between the 2 lines running from the nose to upper lip. Many of the facial nerves run through this area. A direct hit would cause the sensory fibers to relay the shock to the pons, causing dizziness. A hit would also cause damage to the maxilla bone which holds the gums & teeth. This could cause extensive bleeding posibly scaring the victim about the blood loss. A straight blow in needed to achieve this aiming towards the back of the head.
joint V-A
This is the joint that holds the jaw bone in place. It connects with the skull in front of the ear. The joint is really made up of 2 separate joints, thus dislocation can be unilateral or bilateral. With a 45 degree downward strike (preferably with the mouth open) will dislocate the mandible (jaw bone). An easier way to break the bone is to strike the joint itself or anywhere on the jaw bone really while the head is turned to one side or the other. This reduces the absorbtion of the blow by the neck. This method requires the least amount of force.
tip of mandible I-C The madible is the jaw bone and of course the tip is located on the very end of the chin. Boxers use this point for a quick K.O. Hitting this area sends a shock snesor to the cerebellum causing unconsciousness. Hit this point with an upward blow.
region III-D
This is the area at the frontal sides of the neck. The sternocleidomastoid muscles run from behind the ear down to the clavicle bones. Beneath these muscles lie the jugular vein and cartoid artery which supply blood to the heart & brain. This are is very sensitive. Try poking yourself there. A medium strike results in dizziness. A more forceful blow could blister, swell, collapse, or burst 1 or both of the blood lines. This could easily cause death because of lack of oxygen to the heart or brain. A strike should be done on an upsloping plane at 45 degrees on either side of the chin in the neck area.
anterior neck
region III-D
Referred to as the windpipe or throat; is located in the center portion of the neck. This is a tubular passage running from the mouth to the stomach & lungs. When a straight on blow is delivered the thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple(the lump in your throat)) and the hyaline cartilage (hold the windpipe in a cylinder shape) are pushed through the larynx and/or trachea resulting in blood drowning or partial or complete obstruction of the vital air passages. The cartilages act as cutting devices.
brachial plexus & trapezius muscle IV-C The muscle is the one that runs from the base of the neck to the shoulder. It raises up on most people. The brachial plexus is a nerve center which supplies info about the shoulder & arm down to the wrist. It runs through the trapezius. Striking the trapezius (from either front or back) with a downward 45 degree motion could paralyze the arm & shoulder temporarily. With a maximun blow unconsciousness & paralysis could be attained.
notch III-D
This lies between the collarbones; it connects them. A blow here could dislodge the collarbones from the sternum, collapsing the shoulders. But there are better targets behind the sternum. Such as the aorta, the superior vena cava (major blood lines to the brain), and the trachea all these pass directly behind the sternum. A forceful blow would follow these reactions : dislodge both clavicles from the sternum, the sternum would split, the 2 clavicles & sternum would be forced against or puncture the aorta and vena cava, the cartilages & bones would then be forced against or puncture the trachea. The strike should be delivered at a downward 45 degree angle. The suprasternal notch is a MAJOR death target.
clavicle V-B This is the bone on each side of the body that runs from the shoulder to the center of the chest. It supports the shoulder so breaking a clavicle (collarbone) would result in the collapse of the shoulder. It is possible for the broken bone to puncture a lung or possibly the heart or one of the things mentioned in #14. A simple break would immobilize the victim due to structural damage & pain. An inward & down motion should be used when attacking also at 45 degrees.